“Born in China” – Stunning cinematography but…

Born in China
Directed by Lu Chuan
Disneynature, 2017, 76 minutes

A few weeks ago, my wife and I saw the very good film, “The Zookeeper’s Wife,” and one of the accompanying previews was for “Born in China,” which looked very good. When we mentioned the movie to our five-year-old granddaughter, she knew all about it and wanted to see it, too. So Friday evening, the five of us (my wife, our oldest son, our 18YO and 5YO granddaughters, and myself) packed into my wife’s Jetta like sardines and went to see “Born in China.”

This nature documentary follows a year in the the lives of a panda bear and her cub, a snow leopard and her two cubs, a golden snub-nosed monkey, and a herd of “chiru” antelope in the backwoods of China. The scenery and photography are breathtaking – what a Creator we have! – and the stories are fascinating. However, the struggles between predator and prey are way too graphic for young children. The MPAA association goofed by awarding this film a G-rating. It’s definitely too violent for a 5-year-old.

Something else bothered me about this movie. A couple of times the narrator interjects an Eastern philosophy, “cycle of life” monologue explaining how some Chinese believe the spirits of dead animals are carried up and away by red-crowned cranes to eventually become new animals. Wow! So Disney is now introducing its young audiences to reincarnation? Lovely. There’s also a mention of Eastern religion’s concept of the ying and yang. These references to Eastern religion are going to fly over the heads of most young children but they are causes for concern, along with the sometimes very graphic displays of animal survival. For older kids, the reincarnation references could be used as an excellent “teaching moment” opportunity after the movie.

After the show we stopped in at a nearby Chipotle for burritos all around (no scolding comments please, I ate only HALF of mine). It was my first visit to Chipotles and I liked it very much. No qualifiers on the food!

Baby Doll: “Sometimes, big shot, you don’t seem to give me credit for very much intelligence at all. I’ve been to school in my life – and I’m a magazine reader!”

Baby Doll
Directed by Elia Kazan and featuring Karl Malden, Carroll Baker, and Eli Wallach
Warner Bros., 1956, 114 minutes

All of Elia Kazan’s previous eleven films contained some type of hard-hitting social message. With the farcical, dark comedy, “Baby Doll,” Kazan would break the mold.

Plot

Middle-aged, Archie Lee Meighan (Malden), is at the end of his rope. He had bought the dilapidated Mississippi Delta plantation mansion, Tiger Tail, with plans to renovate it for his child-bride, Baby Doll (Baker), but a modern, syndicate cotton gin plant has put the small independent ginners in the area, like Archie Lee, out of business. Compounding his financial humiliation is the publics’ knowledge of Archie Lee’s wedding pledge to Baby Doll’s father not to consummate the marriage until her twentieth-birthday, just a few days away. But Baby Doll is repulsed by the financially strapped and increasingly unhinged Archie Lee. The last straw comes when all of their furniture is repossessed. Even the Black folk of the area hold Archie Lee in derision.

Archie Lee gets revenge for his misery by burning down the syndicate gin. The owner, Silva Vacarro (Eli Wallach), suspects Archie Lee is the culprit and the very next day arrives at Tiger Tail with a convoy of raw cotton. While Archie Lee is gleefully occupied processing the cotton at his broken-down gin, Vaccaro and Baby Doll remain at the mansion and he coaxes her into signing an affidavit admitting her husband was responsible for burning down the syndicate gin. That evening, Archie Lee returns to the mansion, and with the affidavit safely in his pocket, Vaccaro goads him to the breaking point. Archie Lee grabs his shotgun while Vaccaro scoots up a tree. When the local sheriff hauls Archie Lee off to prison, Vaccaro victoriously proclaims he’ll be back the next day with more cotton to gin. Baby Doll turns to her demented Aunt Rose Comfort (Mildred Dunnock) and says with a mixture of hope and despair, “Well, let’s go in now. We got nothing to do but wait for tomorrow and see if we’re remembered or forgotten.”

Commentary

“Baby Doll” was quite controversial when it was released in 1956. The Catholic church gave it a C – “Condemned” – rating, meaning anyone who saw the movie committed a “mortal” sin. Francis Cardinal Spellman, archbishop of New York City, ordered parish priests to position themselves in theater lobbies to intimidate parishioners from seeing the movie, although we now know that Spellman was personally racking up a truckload of “mortal” sins “behind closed doors” at the time. Due to the controversy, “Baby Doll” was pulled from theaters after only a short run. My, things have certainly changed. “Baby Doll” would probably earn no higher than a PG-13 rating today.

Baker, Dunnock, Tennessee Williams (screenplay), and Boris Kaufman (cinematography) were all nominated for Oscars. Malden is excellent as the tragically comic foil. The movie was filmed in Benoit, Mississippi and the nearby abandoned Burrus Plantation Mansion, which has only recently been renovated (see here). As in many of his other films, Kazan used local citizens to augment the cast, including many African-Americans. There are several examples in the film of the segregation of the Deep South in 1956. It’s ironic that Archie Lee seeks swift justice for the perceived wrongs he has suffered while the segregated Blacks of the town must silently endure systematic abuse from Archie Lee and the rest of the White population.

Additional thoughts from a believer

Although it’s a simple farce without much of a plot or message, “Baby Doll” is ultimately about revenge and justice. Archie Lee seeks revenge and justice by burning down what he sees as the cause of all of his problems, the rival syndicate gin. Vaccaro seeks revenge and justice by seeing that Archie Lee is successfully charged with arson. Baby Doll wants to extricate herself from her hopeless situation and sees in the suave Vaccaro a possible escape.

Can a follower of Jesus Christ garner anything from this “tiger’s tail”? Elia Kazan may have been an atheist but his films often had excellent critical insights into the “human condition.” How much of our energy goes into striving to rise above others through our jobs/careers and number of possessions? How much of our self-worth is tied to money, the things we own, and social status? When we suffer loss or embarrassment, is our kneejerk reaction to seek revenge? How many of our undesirable circumstances are the “other guy’s” fault. How much do we live by, “Doeth unto them before they doeth unto you”? Why does it feel so good to hang onto a grudge?

We are all sinners full of self-serving hypocrisy and until you can admit to that, there is no hope for you. But God provided a way out from the eternal punishment we deserve through His Son, Jesus Christ. Accept Jesus Christ as your personal Savior by placing your faith in Him alone.

“I did not come to call the [self-proclaimed] righteous [who see no need to repent], but sinners to repentance [to change their old way of thinking, to turn from sin and to seek God and His righteousness].” Luke 5:32 AMP

Unsettling

WL

Woodlawn
Directed by Andrew and Jon Erwin
Pure Flix Entertainment, 2015, 124 minutes

Every morning on my drive into work, I catch the tail-end of evangelist Greg Laurie’s radio show. I’m not a big fan because of Laurie’s ecumenical leanings but many months ago I heard him discussing “Woodlawn” with one of the movie’s directors and I picked up the DVD out of curiosity. This week I finally got around to watching it.

Plot

In 1973 in his sophomore year, African-American student, Tony Nathan (Caleb Castille), is bused to Woodlawn, a previously segregated all-white high school in Birmingham, Alabama. Nathan is an extremely talented athlete but Coach Tandy Gerelds (Nic Bishop) keeps him on the bench because he doesn’t want to rile the good ol’ boys of the community who are already on edge. Racial tensions on the team compound an already dismal start to the football season. A Christian evangelist, Hank Erwin (Sean Astin), asks if he can give a motivational talk to the team and most of the players profess accepting Jesus Christ as their Savior. Racial tensions ease as the players are increasingly united in their faith. Nathan is given the starting job as the team’s featured running back, but as the wins begin piling up he must reconcile his growing popularity with a budding romantic relationship and with his faith in Christ.

The Gospel begins to spread through the high school campus and Bible studies and prayer groups become the norm. Even reluctant Coach Gerelds accepts Christ. Impacted by what’s happening at Woodlawn, the revival spreads to other high school campuses. A large number of the players from the Banks high school football team, once a bitter rival of Woodlawn, also accept Christ. Forty-thousand fans turn out to watch Woodlawn play Banks but it’s more about cheering for Jesus and racial harmony than for a ball game.

Commentary

The writing, acting, and production standards of this film all leave a lot to be desired.

Additional thoughts from a believer

It was somewhat inspirational to see this portrayal of faith spreading so quickly among so many, but how many of the young people of Birmingham actually accepted Christ in 1973 and how many were just caught up in religious emotionalism and hysteria? “Woodlawn” left me with an uneasy feeling. This film gives a great deal of credit for the Woodlawn “revival” to the after-effects of “Explo 72,” a Campus Crusade for Christ conference that drew more than 80,000 college and high school students to the Cotton Bowl stadium in Dallas, Texas over the course of five days in 1972, featuring Billy Graham and Bill Bright as the main speakers. An affiliated, one-day music concert, later dubbed as the “Christian Woodstock,” drew over 100,000.

Graham is hailed as the greatest evangelist of our times yet no one has done more to blur the Gospel of grace and further evangelical ecumenism with Rome. At the end of the film, viewers are encouraged to attend Laurie’s Harvest 2016 happening in Dallas as well as the ecumenical “Together 2016” event in Washington, D.C., which included a video message from pope Francis. When the credits rolled at the end of “Woodlawn,” I was not surprised to see the executive producers were Roman Catholic/New Age ecumenist, Roma Downey, and her husband, Mark Burnett.

“East of Eden”: The “gospel” according to two atheists

EOE

East of Eden
Directed by Elia Kazan and featuring James Dean, Julie Harris, Raymond Massey, and Jo Van Fleet
Warner Brothers, 1955, 117 minutes

John Steinbeck’s 1952 novel, “East of Eden,” had been very well-received by the public and director Elia Kazan used the last third of the book as the basis for his eleventh film.

Plot

Adam Trask (Massey), an aging rancher in Salinas, California in 1917, is determined to make his mark on the world before he dies by originating the process of shipping fresh ice-packed lettuce to the East via the railroad. His loving and dutiful son, Aron (Richard Davalos), supports and encourages him in the endeavor but his other son, Cal (Dean), continuously rebels against his stern and “puritanical” father’s authority. Cal has a change of heart and decides to help Adam with the lettuce venture but he also learns his mother (Van Fleet) is not dead as Adam had told the boys, but has become the no-nonsense matron of a successful brothel in nearby Monterey, information Cal initially keeps to himself. Cal becomes friendly with Aron’s girlfriend, Abra (Harris), who is beginning to chafe at the thought of marrying the prudish brother.

When Adam’s lettuce venture fails, Cal secretly borrows money from his mother and contracts a crop of beans, speculating that America’s entry into World War I will drive commodity prices sky high, enabling him to recoup his father’s lost fortune. As Cal and Abra’s relationship grows warmer, tensions in Salinas reach a boiling point as America enters the war and the town folk seek to take out their frustration on a German immigrant. The pacifist Aron tries to intervene but yelling and pushing turn to fisticuffs when Cal enters the melee. Brother then turns on brother.

Cal attempts to present his father with the money he earned as a birthday present after Aron preempts him by announcing he and Abra are engaged, much to her displeasure. Adam refuses the money, which he sees as war profiteering. Humiliated by the rejection and another demonstration of his father’s lack of love, Cal declares he hates Adam and brings Aron to Monterey to reveal to him the truth about their mother, knowing it will destroy him. Disillusioned and in a drunken stupor, Aron joins the army. Adam runs to the train station just as Aron’s train is leaving and suffers a stroke. Lying in bed, Adam is close to death. Abra pleads with him to express some love to Cal before it’s too late. Adam responds by asking Cal to take care of him rather than his condescending nurse. Feeling loved and accepted by his father for the first time, Cal sits down next to Adam’s bed.

Commentary

After the release of “East of Eden” Dean swiftly became an icon among young movie-goers as a symbol of teenage angst and rebellion. He would die in an automobile accident just six months after the film’s release. Julie Harris gives a wonderful performance. Kazan later gave her a great amount of credit for steadying the moody and mercurial Dean throughout the filming. The rest of the cast does a good job. Van Fleet won an Oscar for her portrayal while Dean, Kazan, and screenwriter Paul Osborn were nominated. Kazan specifically chose to dramatize the last third of Steinbeck’s novel because the conflict between father and son reminded him of his difficult relationship with his own overbearing father. I’ve had the Blu-ray version of “East of Eden” for quite a while but I watched it for the first time only recently. It was a real pleasure watching this familiar movie in Hi-Def. This was Kazan’s first color film and it was also shot in wide-angle Cinemascope. Kazan and cinematographer Ted McCord took some successful risks and deliver an excellent film.

Additional thoughts from a believer

There are obviously many religious undertones in this film drawn very loosely from the Genesis narrative of Cain and Abel. Adam the father is a stern and pious Christian who wishes to impose his faith on his sons. Bible reading at the dinner table is a mandatory and joyless exercise. The message from atheists Steinbeck and Kazan is that what appears to be “good” (Adam and Aron) is not always good, and what appears to be “bad” (Cal) is not always bad. It’s no wonder the writer and director got it wrong. Too often we Christians present our faith as a joyless attempt to impose our morality on others. Better we should focus on spreading the Good News! of salvation by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone and humbly letting others know we are sinners saved by grace rather than taking the attitude of pious churchgoers looking down our noses at everyone else.

“The Zookeeper’s Wife”: A Short Review

 

A couple of Fridays ago, I posted some information on a new film that was out, “The Zookeeper’s Wife” (see here), and this past Saturday my wife and I went to the theater to see it. Here’s a short review:

The Zookeepers Wife
Directed by Nick Caro and featuring Jessica Chastain, Johan Heldenbergh, and Daniel Bruhl
Focus Features, 2017, 126 minutes

Plot (Spoiler alert!)

Dr. Jan Zabinski (Heldenbergh) and his wife, Antonina (Chastain), are the keepers of the Warsaw Zoo in Poland in 1939. Germany invades Western Poland on September 1st and the Nazi authorities take direct control of the zoo. The more-valuable animals are shipped to Berlin while those left behind are shot. Jan convinces the German overseer, Dr. Heck (Bruhl), to preserve the zoo as a breeding facility for pigs. The Nazis quarantine all Jews in the area to the Warsaw ghetto, which Jan visits regularly to obtain scraps for the pigs while also managing to smuggle Jews back to the zoo where they are hidden. Heck has a bit of a crush on Antonina and she accepts his personal advances in an effort to win his confidence and allay his suspicions.

The Nazis deport all of the Jews living in the ghetto to extermination camps in 1942-43 and Jan is wounded in the uprising of the Polish underground army in 1944. Antonina visits Heck and pleads for information about her husband but instead the Nazi official finally becomes convinced that the Zabinskis are harboring Jews. Antonina rushes back to the zoo, helping the Jews to escape. Heck arrives with his men, surveying the Jews’ former hiding places, but decides to show clemency to Antonina and her son. As Soviet forces advance into Warsaw, Antonina flees with other refugees but eventually returns back to the zoo where she is reunited with some of the surviving Jews and Jan.

Commentary

This is an excellent movie and I highly recommend it. My wife wanted to leave during the early scenes when the Nazis were killing the zoo’s animals but I talked her out of it and she was glad I did. Jessica Chastain is excellent. The Zabinskis as well as thousands of other rescuers showed great courage and compassion in harboring Jews during the Holocaust. In reality some Poles were antagonistic towards the Jews but this myth-defying truth was avoided in the film.

Additional thoughts from a believer

Many will watch a movie like this and wonder how the Nazis could have been so inhumane? “I could never be a part of something like that,” they will claim. But God’s Word rightly says we are all sinners and we are all capable of the vilest of thoughts and behaviors.

“The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?” – Jeremiah 17:9

“For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders” – Mark 7:21

We all need to come to Jesus Christ and accept Him as our Savior by faith alone. All of us are guilty and deserve eternal punishment. Thank you, Jesus, for saving me from the eternity of hell that I deserve.

The Case for Compromise and Betrayal

CFC

While listening to the “Kresta in the Afternoon” Catholic talk radio show on my drive home from work yesterday, I heard an advertisement for the upcoming film, “The Case for Christ,” which boasted to the Catholic listeners that the movie was endorsed by Charles Chaput, Catholic archbishop of Philadelphia.

Sigh.

Before proceeding any further, allow me to fill in a little background. When a product is wildly successful with the public, the manufacturer will often introduce multiple variations of the same product. Think Cheerios, Ocean Spray cranberry drinks, Harry Potter, Star Wars, etc. Evangelical apologist, Lee Strobel, wrote “The Case for Christ” in 1998 and it sold tons of copies. Strobel has leveraged the success of his first book by cranking out one “The Case for…” book after another.

I borrowed “The Case for Christ” from the library a couple of years ago and actually enjoyed it. I then borrowed the second book in the series, “The Case for Faith” (2000), but I was very disappointed by some of the contents. Strobel cited mother Teresa, pope John Paul II, G.K. Chesterton, and Teresa of Avila, all staunch Catholics faithful to their church’s teachings, as exemplary Christians. An entire chapter was devoted to Catholic theologian, Peter Kreeft, who routinely propagates the Catholic salvation theology of salvation by sacramental grace and merit through his books and lectures. Needless to say, I haven’t bothered to read any more of Strobel’s “The Case for…” books.

I’ve since learned that Lee Strobel is a disciple of ecumenical theologian, Norman Geisler, who also mentored Ravi Zacharias and William Lane Craig. Ah, it’s all beginning to fit. Geisler, Zacharias, and Craig were also allotted individual chapters in “The Case for Faith” alongside Kreeft.

The film version of Strobel’s “The Case for Christ” will be released in theaters tomorrow, Friday, April 6th. As I mentioned, Catholic archbishop Chaput “warmly recommends it.” I’m sure there’s some good information in the movie, just like there was in the book, but the overall ecumenical nature of “The Case for…” franchise is a devious threat to the purity of the Gospel of salvation by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone. The enemy works through men like Strobel, Geisler, Zacharias, and Craig to muddy the Gospel of grace through ecumenical compromise and betrayal. Predictably, Strobel has been pushing his movie via appearances on TBN.

Below is Chaput’s endorsement of “The Case for Christ” as well as the names of the other Catholic endorsers posted on the film’s official web site:

“THE CASE FOR CHRIST is an engaging, beautiful story of a family coming to faith in Jesus Christ, made more compelling by its basis in real events. I warmly recommend it.” – His Excellency, Charles J. Chaput, O.F.M. Cap., Archbishop of Philadelphia

Rev. Msgr. J. Brian Bransfield, General Secretary, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

His Eminence, Donald Cardinal Wuerl, Archbishop of Washington

Fr. Francis “Rocky” Hoffman, Executive Director, Relevant Radio Network

Sr. Patricia Phillips, SHCJ, Executive Director, Wordnet Productions

Fr. Dwight Longenecker, Catholic Priest, Blogger, Author of The Mystery of the Magi

Derry Connolly, President, John Paul the Great Catholic University

Fr. Christopher Bazyouros, Senior Director, Office of Religious Education, Archdiocese of Los Angeles

If unbelievers begin inquiring about God after seeing this film, where would they go for answers? To the Catholic church with its false gospel of sacramental grace and merit? Evidently Lee Strobel believes that’s just fine.

“The Zookeeper’s Wife” and complicated Polish-Jewish relations

ZKPR

 

I see that the film, “The Zookeeper’s Wife,” based upon the 2007 same-titled book by Diane Ackerman, will be opening at theaters today. The movie follows the true-life story of Jan and Antonina Zabinski, a husband and wife team who ran the Warsaw Zoo and bravely hid hundreds of Jews from the Nazis during the German occupation of Poland.

When I walked away from the Lord for a very long “season,” I needed something to fill the void so I immersed myself in Polish and Polish-American history and culture (I’m 50% Polish, 38% German, and 12% Irish by ethnicity). I read a ton of books, joined some local and national organizations, and actually became pretty knowledgeable on the subject. After several years I became increasingly drawn to the controversial sub-topic of Polish-Jewish relations. If you’re even somewhat aware of Polish history and culture you know that relations between Poles and Jews are very strained with recriminations coming from both sides. I’ll try to very briefly give you some of the basics of this tense relationship.

Poland in the Middle Ages was an extreme example of feudalism. There was the nobility, the clergy, the peasantry and nobody else. The merchant/artisan class was springing up in other countries but Poland lagged behind. When the Jews were expelled from Western European nations in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Polish nobility invited them to immigrate to Poland to fill the void. Eventually, half of Europe’s Jews ended up residing in Poland. The Polish nobility relied on the Jews for their acumen in mercantilism and finance but the peasantry increasingly resented these “foreigners” who were often appointed as middlemen landlords and agents. The Roman Catholic clergy often incited resentment against the “Christ-killers.”

Beginning in the late-18th century, Poland was carved up by Prussia, Austro-Hungaria, and Russia and erased from the map, only to emerge again following World War I. Inter-war Poland was marked by increasing anti-Semitism. A severe brand of Catholic ethno-nationalism began sweeping the country to the point that Polish national leaders were exploring the possibilities of expulsing the Jews. The Polish ambassador to Germany met with Hitler in 1938 and promised the Fuhrer a monument in Warsaw if he could help resolve Poland’s “Jewish Question.”

But animosities were put on hold in September 1939 when Germany and Communist Russia staged a joint invasion of Poland and split the country in two. All Poles in the Western part of the country suffered under Nazi rule but the Jews would be targeted for total annihilation. In the East, some Jews who had become radicalized in response to Polish Catholic oppression welcomed the invading Red Army as liberators. In the minds of many Poles, all Jews subsequently became hated traitors. The myth of “Zhydo-kommuna,” Jewish communism, was born. When the German army drove the Soviets out of Eastern Poland in 1941, ethnic Poles began a bloody campaign of revenge against Jews, whether they had collaborated with the Soviets or not.

When Polish Jews were shipped en masse to the death camps by the Germans in 1942-43, most Catholic Poles kept a low profile but there were some who actively assisted the Nazis in rounding up Jews. Some capitalized on the Jews’ precarious circumstances via blackmail. But there were also some brave Poles who hid Jews from the Nazis, such as the Zabinskis, sometimes paying with their lives. The rescuers often feared their Polish-Catholic neighbors as much as they feared the Nazis.

Deeply ingrained in Polish national culture is the mythos of Poland as the “Christ of Europe,” mistreated by its aggressive neighbors but always noble and honorable itself. Tales of the rescuers as examples of Polish Catholic benevolence and sacrifice receive great publicity throughout the country and in the diaspora. But relatively recent research (Gross, Grabowski, Polonsky, etc.), which examines the virulent anti-Semitism of inter-war, wartime, and post-war Poland, is understandably less well received. Poles become extremely offended by any historical research that conflicts with their beloved mythos. Although there are very few Jews currently living in Poland, Jews in Israel and America are still resentful of how Jews were treated by Poles. Meanwhile, Poles still harbor negative feelings towards Jews for “Zhydo-kommuna.”

I’m looking forward to seeing “The Zookeeper’s Wife” and we should remember the Zabinskis, the other 6700 Poles recognized as rescuers by Yad Veshem, and all others who sacrificially rescued Jews during the Holocaust. But we are in the midst of another war; a spiritual war. As Christians, we need to reach out to a lost and dying world with the hope of the “Good News!” of salvation by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone. Through Jesus Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit, we are to be rescuers as well!

Rescue the Perishing by Fanny J. Crosby

Rescue the perishing,
Care for the dying,
Snatch them in pity from sin and the grave;
Weep o’er the erring one,
Lift up the fallen,
Tell them of Jesus the mighty to save.

Chorus
Rescue the perishing,
Care for the dying;
Jesus is merciful,
Jesus will save.

Though they are slighting Him,
Still He is waiting,
Waiting the penitent child to receive;
Plead with them earnestly,
Plead with them gently;
He will forgive if they only believe.

Down in the human heart,
Crushed by the tempter,
Feelings lie buried that grace can restore;
Touched by a loving heart,
Wakened by kindness,
Chords that are broken will vibrate once more.

Rescue the perishing,
Duty demands it;
Strength for thy labor the Lord will provide;
Back to the narrow way,
Patiently win them;
Tell the poor wand’rer a Savior has died.

Here’s some additional books that explore Polish-Jewish relations if anyone is interested:

  • Poland’s Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew From 1880 to the Present by Joanna B. Michlic
  • Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by Jan Gross
  • Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland After Auschwitz by Jan Gross
  • Golden Harvest: Events at the Periphery of the Holocaust by Jan Gross
  • Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future by Robert Cherry
  • When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland by Brian Porter
  • The Populist Radical Right in Poland: The Patriots by Rafal Pankowski
  • The Catholic Church and Antisemitism: Poland, 1933-1939 by Ronald E. Modras
  • Antisemitism and Its Opponents in Modern Poland by Robert Blobaum
  • The Crosses of Auschwitz: Nationalism and Religion in Post-Communist Poland by Genevieve Zubrzycki
  • No Way Out: The Politics of Polish Jewry, 1935-1939 by Emanuel Melzer
  • Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland: A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era by Magda Teter
  • Imaginary Neighbors: Mediating Polish-Jewish Relations after the Holocaust by Dorota Glowacka
  • The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy Over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland by Antony Polonsky
  • Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and Its Aftermath by Joshua D. Zimmerman
  • Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945 by Gunnar S. Paulsson
  • Shtetl by Eva Hoffman
  • Bondage to the Dead: Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust by Michael C. Steinlauf
  • My Brother’s Keeper: Recent Polish Debates on the Holocaust by Antony Polonsky
  • Polish-Jewish Relations During the Second World War by Emanuel Ringelblum
  • On the Edge of Destruction: Jews of Poland Between the Two World Wars by Celia Stopnicka Heller
  • The Convent at Auschwitz by Wladyslaw Bartoszewski
  • The Jews in Poland by Chimen Abramsky
  • Forced Out: The Fate of Polish Jewry in Communist Poland by Arthur J. Wolak
  • The Jews in Polish Culture by Aleksander Hertz
  • Faith and Fatherland: Catholicism, Modernity, and Poland by Brian Porter
  • Sinners on Trial: Jews and Sacrilege after the Reformation by Magda Teter
  • From Assimilation to Anitsemitism: The “Jewish Question” in Poland, 1850-1914 by Theodore R. Weeks
  • The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars by Yisrael Gutman
  • Economic origins of Antisemitism: Poland and Its Jews in the Early Modern Period by Hillel Levine
  • Memory Offended: The Auschwitz Convent Controversy by John K. Roth
  • In the Shadow of the Polish Eagle: The Poles, the Holocaust, and Beyond by Leo Cooper
  • Difficult Questions in Polish-Jewish Dialogue by Jacek Santorski
  • The Jews in Poland and Russia: Volume III: 1914 to 2008 by Antony Polonsky
  • Polish Politics in Transition: The Camp of National Unity and the Struggle for Power, 1935-1939 by Edward D. Wynot
  • Thou Shalt Not Kill: Poles on Jedwabne edited by William Brand
  • Between the Brown and the Red: Nationalism, Catholicism, and Communism in Twentieth-Century Poland by Mikolaj Stanislaw Kunicki
  • There Once Was A World: A 900-Year Chronicle of the Shtetl of Eishyshok by Yaffa Eliach
  • Symbiosis and Ambivalence: Poles and Jews in a Small Galacian Town by Rosa Lehmann
  • Holocaust and Memory by Barbara Engelking
  • Bystanders, Blackmailers, and Perpetrators: Polish Complicity During the Holocaust by Jacob A. Flaws
  • Studies on Polish Jewry, 1919-1939: The interplay of social, economic, and political factors in the struggle of a minority for its existence by Joshua A. Fishman
  • The House at Ujazdowskie 16: Jewish Families in Warsaw after the Holocaust by Karen Auerbach
  • Hunt for the Jews: Betrayal and Murder in German Occupied Poland by Jan Grabowski