Kazan examines racial bigotry in “Pinky”

Directed by Elia Kazan and featuring Jeanne Crain, Ethel Waters, and Ethel Barrymore
20th Century Fox, 1949, 102 minutes

Always on the lookout for a “social message” script, liberal 20th Century Fox studio mogul, Darryl F. Zanuck, followed the success of “Gentlemen’s Agreement” (Best Picture, 1947), which tackled the issue of anti-Semitism, with “Pinky,” a film dealing with prejudice against African-Americans. Legendary director, John Ford, had already begun working on the film but dropped out after clashes with Ethel Waters. Zanuck enlisted Elia Kazan to replace Ford.


Patricia “Pinky” Johnson (Jeanne Crain) returns home to Alabama after graduating from nursing school in Boston. She is of mixed Caucasian and Black race, but has absolutely no physical characteristics typical of Blacks and easily passed herself off as White in the North. When her Black granny, Dicey (Ethel Waters), asks Pinky to nurse her dying friend, Miss Em (Ethel Barrymore), matron of the crumbling former plantation, Pinky acquiesces after some serious misgivings and eventually befriends the old dame. All the while Pinky encounters blatant racism whenever the White townsfolk discover she’s actually of mixed race. When her White boyfriend (William Lundigan) from up North tracks her down he is startled to learn from Pinky that she is bi-racial but wishes to continue the relationship. After Miss Em’s death, the entire town is shocked to learn she willed her estate to Pinky, most especially, Em’s racist cousin, Melba (portrayed by Evelyn Varden in a remarkable performance). Melba contests the will in court but the judge unbelievably upholds it. Rejecting her suitor’s invitation to leave the town and her true racial identity behind, Pinky turns the old plantation into “Miss Em’s Clinic and Nursery School” for Black children.


In later interviews, Kazan stated that he was not altogether pleased with “Pinky” and referred to it as an emasculated morality play. The casting of white-as-the-driven-snow Jeanne Crain as the bi-racial protagonist ensured there would be few objections showing the film in the South, but it took the teeth out of the picture. Crain in the arms of William Lundigan was fine but a light-skinned, African-American actress such as Lena Horne or Dorothy Dandridge in the arms of a White actor at that time would have been entirely unacceptable. It is certainly difficult for the viewer to suspend belief and accept Crain as dark-skinned Water’s granddaughter but “Pinky” does portray racism in a convincing manner in several scenes. “Pinky” may seem tame by today’s standards but it was was extremely controversial when it was released in 1949.

Controversy aside, the cast is fantastic and I’ve come to appreciate “Pinky” a bit more with each viewing. Both Waters and Barrymore, the First Lady of the Theater, were nominated for Oscars for their portrayals. Most memorable in minor roles are Frederick O’Neal as rascally Jake Walters, Evelyn Varden as Melba Wooley, Nina Mae McKinney as Rozelia, and Basil Ruysdael as Judge Walker. Dan Riss as Wooley’s stereotypical Southern lawyer is absolutely delightful in his small role. Kazan was very critical of Jeanne Crain in several of his later writings and interviews for her extremely limited emotional scale. Of all the many actors Kazan directed in his nineteen films, I don’t believe he criticized anyone else so fiercely. Surprisingly, Crain was nominated for Best Actress for her tense, one-dimensional performance.

“Pinky” turned out to be much more than a liberal crusade for Zanuck; the controversial subject matter generated great interest among movie-goers resulting in “Pinky” being the second-highest grossing film for Fox in 1949 despite some opposition in the South. With “Pinky,” Kazan continued to raise the suspicions and ire of the House Un-American Committee.

At this point in his career, Kazan was chaffing against studio control. Like “Gentleman’s Agreement” before it, the director was forced to shoot “Pinky” largely in the studio and backlot.  Kazan was still searching for his signature style when he directed “Pinky,” his fifth film, but he would find it while making his next picture, the gritty film noir thriller, “Panic in the Streets.”

Film historian, Kenneth Geist, provides an unremarkable commentary for the “Pinky” DVD. Unfortunately, his remarks have much more to do with the overall careers of Waters and Barrymore than with the details of “Pinky.”

Additional thoughts from a believer’s perspective

It’s hard to believe from today’s perspective how American Christians of yesteryear used the Bible to justify bigotry, intolerance, and persecution. No doubt more than a few sermons included such exhortations as, “Slavery’s in the Bible so that must mean it’s okay for us to own slaves” and “The Old Testament forbade intermarriage and mingling with other ethnicities and races (those commandments were for the Israelites) so we must do the same.” I was just a kid at the time of the civil rights marches and legislation, and race riots. America as a nation has come a long way since then but still has a long way to go. It’s often said that Sunday is the most segregated day of the week.


7 thoughts on “Kazan examines racial bigotry in “Pinky”

    1. Thanks, PTH. Kazan, being a Marxist was an ardent critic of American society. I wouldn’t have agreed with him on many things, obviously, but he did make some interesting statements that had a ring of truth to them…like the racial bigotry he exposed in Pinky and the anti-Semitism in his previous movie, Gentleman’s Agreement.

      Liked by 1 person

  1. Thought this was a good movie! I think it got me thinking about “soft racism” the kind that often looks the other way or are more subtle and not as blatant. It blows my mind this movie was before the Civil Rights Movement and hence would have been seen as very radical with the idea of do something beyond even “writing” about it as suggested several times in the movie.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks, Jim. I know you’re referring to “Gentleman’s Agreement” with this comment. Glad you enjoyed it. Kazan made “Pinky,” a film about anti-Black bigotry, right after “Gentleman’s Agreement.”

      Yes, GA was very radical for 1947 and those connected with it were targeted by the U.S. Congress.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Nah, I knew exactly what you were trying to do. Yes, it was quite a one-two punch from Kazan, first against anti-Semitism then targeting prejudice against African-Americans! The films that followed were also critical of the American status quo but were more subtle about it.

        Liked by 1 person

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